Crane work. Dangers, causes of accidents, safe transport
Crane work. Dangers, causes of accidents, safe transport
January 9, 2017 | Author: Daniel Salzmann | Category: N/A DOWNLOAD PDF (2.5MB) Share Embed Donate Report this link
1 Crane work Dangers, causes of accidents, safe transport2 Why actually crane work? Cranes are the strong helpers…
Crane work dangers, causes of accidents, safe transport
Why actually crane work? Cranes are powerful helpers in the factory. They lift and transport bulky loads weighing tons with ease. They run on rails (gantry crane), elevated runways (bridge crane) or can be moved individually (truck-mounted cranes). Cranes are controlled from the ground or from the driver's cab. This involves moving loads both horizontally and vertically in all directions. Loads must be securely attached to-. Be struck off. Here, clear communication and coordination between the slinger and crane operator is important. The crane operator does not always have a direct view of the load. This makes crane work particularly dangerous if other employees are within this movement radius.
Crane head stand and hook madness Serious accidents occur again and again during crane work. The main accident causes are: – Incorrect operation of the crane, – Crushing of persons due to working alone,
Lack of safety distances as well as swinging loads, – lack of communication/coordination between
Slinger, load operator and crane operator, – fall from ladders when slinging high loads, – load fall due to unsuitable slinging equipment, – electric shock due to approach or. Touch one
High Voltage Power Line.
A man for all cases Crane operator
Crane operators not only need a lot of tact when moving heavy loads with cranes. They must also be able to handle the technically demanding, powerful machines with confidence and know how to attach and detach loads properly. In addition, crane operators must be able to recognize possible defects or hazards and initiate measures to eliminate them. Crane operators often also work as slingers and load handlers at the same time. When transporting large, heavy loads and confined spaces, various hazards lurk, such as z. B. – Tipping over of the crane due to lack of stand/under-
Basic safety or incorrect operation, – load swaying during take-off, turns and
Swinging movements, – bumping the load against fixed components or stacks of material, – squeezing oneself due to confined conditions
Or lack of safety distances.
Safe "parking" Alone work and safety distance
– When transporting large, heavy loads and in cramped conditions-
Always check beforehand whether it is not more sensible and safer to bring in a second person for transport. – Critically inspect the working environment before each transport and
Adequate safety distances on the transport route and in the storage area (z. B. Free storage) ensure. – On rail-bound, track-guided or stationary loads-
If cranes are used, a safety clearance of at least. 0.5 m to be kept between the power-moving outer parts of the crane and stored material or fixed components. – When placing loads never a stand between the
Take load and fixed parts. A radio-controlled crane operation allows a safe location outside the danger zone.
Checklist for crane operators This must be observed
– Check the condition of the crane, the function of the brake-
Sen and Notendhalteeinrichtungen. – If you discover defects that jeopardize safety,
Stop operating the crane, report any defects to the supervisor and record them in a crane inspection logbook. – Observe the stability and load-bearing capacity of the
Substrate. – Maintain safety distances from overhead power lines. – Agree on the required sign with the
Slinger/Instructor. – Observe the load, the load suspension device and
The signs of the marshaller. – Avoid swaying the load and guide it
Not over persons. – Never pull or drag loads at an angle. Fixed
Do not tear loads loose. – Keep control devices in hand as long as a
Load hanging from the crane. Zero or idle position. Block the power supply. – Secure the remote control against unauthorized activation. – Determine wind protection if required.
Crane work and correct load guidance are responsible activities only for professionally trained and commissioned employees.
Professional slinging and the use of suitable slinging equipment are prerequisites for the safe transport of loads.
In addition to inspecting the crane, the crane operator's duties also include minor maintenance work. 7
Safe lifting, lowering, steering Planning, organization, transport Before loads can be safely slung and transported, a number of things must be checked and observed: Clarify in advance – Check transport route, pick-up and unloading point – Determine weight and center of gravity of the load – Select a suitable sling (check identification tags) and visually inspect (in case of deficiencies, e.G. B. – For a safe parking space-. Provide for knocking off – Check suitable anchor points – If necessary. Provide edge protection – Provide dunnage and wedges at unloading point
For transport – Secure material against breakage, tipping, falling apart – Attach load from a safe position and slowly tighten slinging equipment – Communicate with all parties involved – Leave danger area – Slinger gives signal to crane operator to lift – Use guide ropes or pull hooks if loads must be guided or turned during transport When lowering – Do not give signal to lower until, Do not stand between the moving load and fixed parts if the load is rotated by hand during lowering – Have the correct supports ready when lowering the load – Secure material against rolling, tipping, falling apart – Maintain safety distances
Chained up Suitable lifting gear – safe transport
Loads must be attached securely to prevent accidental unhooking or. To prevent the load from falling. Depending on the shape, severity and center of gravity of the load, various load suspension devices are used, such as. B. Load-bearing equipment (z. B. Crane hooks), slinging equipment (z. B. Wire ropes, hoisting belts, round steel chains) and load handling equipment (z. B. Traverses, lifting clamps, grabs). This must be observed: – Load hooks must be equipped with a safety device to prevent unintentional
Be equipped to unhook. – Use only appropriate slinging equipment, z. B.
Lifting straps or through ropes when transporting bundles of steel mesh or reinforcement elements. – When transporting bundles or packages, make sure that no pieces can slip out or are transported loose on the load. – Edge protectors protect transport parts from damage. Prevent the slipping of slings. – The correct spread angle ensures safe transport of bulky loads such as z. B. Natural stone blocks.
What are you doing? Communication and coordination
Clear, unambiguous communication is particularly important in the case of crane work, because people are always present in the danger zone in order to carry out activities necessary for the transport. The crane operator must be aware of all movements of all parties involved. Therefore: – Do not sit in the slewing and working area of cranes on-
Hold. Unexpected lifting, swiveling or swinging movements can occur here at any time. – Keeping each other informed and coordinating with each other is vital in crane work. – To ensure the safety of employees, work equipment and loads to be transported, the use of a coordinator can be useful. This is to be checked in advance. – Anyone acting as a responsible marshaller must have constant line of sight to all involved and have a complete view of the crane's working and slewing area.
Only one gives sign hand signal during crane work
Hand signals enable clear communication between the crane operator, the guide or the slinger. They must be agreed upon before starting work. If there are several people involved, it is important that only one person in charge gives the signs to avoid misunderstandings. The speed at which the hand signals are given shows how fast or slow a movement is to be executed.
Start / Attention / Caution
Stop / Danger
Stop / do not move
Lift / on
Driving on the left
Lower / lower
Driving on the right
Show distance reduction
Keeping distance high voltage and overhead power lines
When working with cranes in the vicinity of high-voltage power lines, minimum distances must be observed. Already at the approach there can be a current transfer.
Mind. Safety distance max. Working height
Minimum distances to high-voltage power lines:
1 m up to 1 kV 3 m for 1 to 110 kV
4 m for 110 kV to 220 kV 5 m for 220 kV to 380 kV
> 5 m with unknown voltage size
4m 5m from 5 m
If, despite all caution, a crane runs into a high-voltage line, the following must be observed: Keep calm. If possible: retract the crane, lower it and swing or drive it out of the danger zone. If this is not possible: do not move, do not touch anything. Do not leave the driver's cab. Arrange for the high-voltage line to be disconnected. Outsiders should maintain a protective distance of at least 20 m.