Electric bike. A New Generation Electric Bike. Designation of electric bicycles. Pedelecs (Pedal to the metal)
Electric bike. A new generation electric bike. Designation electric bicycles. Pedelecs (pedaling on the gas)
October 22, 2016 | Author: Rainer Michel | Category: N/A DOWNLOAD PDF (280.9KB) Share Embed Donate Report this link
Download electric bike. An electric bike of the new generation. Designation electric bicycles. Pedelecs (Pedaling…
A new generation electric bicycle
Designation electric bike
(Pedal to the metal)
– Electric bicycles are driven by both human power and an electric motor. Thus an electric bicycle has a hybrid drive.
Pedelec stands for "Pedal Electric Cycle" and this means that the electric motor provides additional momentum when pedaling and amplifies the driving force. If you stop pedaling, the electric motor also stops powering the bike. According to EU Directive 2002/24/EC, pedelecs are legally equivalent to bicycles if certain limits are respected.
– The electric drive can either be a wheel hub motor built into one of the wheels or a central drive behind the bottom bracket.
The motor must have a maximum rated continuous power of 250 watts, (Austria : 400W)
The maximum speed with motor assistance must not exceed 25 km/h (Austria 20 km/h)
The motor must only drive when the pedals are being pedaled.
– There are two types of electric bicycles: Pedelec and electric bicycle (e-bike)
Technology The motor The motor is a brushless DC motor, d. H. It has no carbon brushes that need to be replaced. (Maintenance-free) Hub motor A hub motor is installed in the hub of the front wheel or rear wheel. When the motor is installed in the rear wheel, only a derailleur can be used on the bike. If the motor is installed in the front wheel, either a derailleur or hub gear can be mounted.
Technical specifications : Voltage : 24V , 36V, 48V Power: 180W, 250W – 1000W With gearbox, built-in electronics..
Control – Pedal sensor – Torque sensor
A control unit ensures that the windings of the motor is controlled correctly. It receives its information from a control unit and from a sensor that detects the pedal movement. Different concepts are used to use the rotary motion to control the motor:
Rotation sensor with throttle – A rotation sensor detects via a perforated disc, magnetic disc, light barrier or similar, whether the pedals are turning. The sensor cannot detect whether the cyclist is using a lot of power or not, or whether the pedals are only being moved without power. The driving force of the motor independent of the applied force of the cyclist. The cyclist must move the pedals slightly. Press the throttle at the same time. – In practice, this type of control can lead the cyclist to use very little of his own power. This then leads to a reduced range of the bicycle, because the motor has to do most of the work. Another disadvantage of this type of control is that the control only detects the pedal movement when the pedals have already moved a bit. Therefore, with this type of control, a starting aid is often additionally installed. This means that the cyclist can use a knob or twist grip to "throttle" the bike when starting off Give and the drive starts to propel the bike up to a speed of 6 kilometers per hour without using the pedals Force or torque sensor – The better solution is a force or torque sensor. It gives a better driving experience, because you directly notice how your own power is amplified by the drive. In addition, bicycles with these sensors have a greater range, because they are more economical with energy when the cyclist uses less power. – When the cyclist is riding on the flat, he pedals only with light force – the force sensor and the control system ensure that only little additional energy is expended via the electric motor. When the cyclist rides uphill, he pedals harder – the force sensor and the control system ensure that the motor provides more assistance. Thus, these bikes manage the balancing act between good support on the mountain and high range. – With this control concept a starting aid is not necessary, because the control recognizes via the force or torque sensor immediately at pedal touch that the cyclist wants to start.
The control unit The control unit contains the switch to turn the drive on or off. This can also be done without problems while riding. On the control unit, you can select how much assistance you want from the drive: For most bicycles there are 2 or 3 stages. In addition, there is usually an indicator for the charge status of the battery – similar to the fuel gauge in a car.
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Energy density / cycles Lead acid battery Lithium Ion Lithium Mg LiFepo4 Scib
30 Wh / kg… Up to 300 140 Wh / kg… Up to 500 140 Wh / kg… Up to 800 98 Wh / kg… Up to 4000 68 Wh / kg… Up to 5000
Pb – lead-acid battery (2 V nominal voltage/cell) NiCd – nickel-cadmium battery (1.2 V nominal voltage/cell) NiH2 – nickel-hydrogen battery (1.5 V nominal voltage/cell) NiMH – nickel-metal hydride battery (1.2 V nominal voltage/cell) Li-ion – lithium-ion battery (3.62 V nominal voltage/cell) LiPo – lithium-polymer battery (3, 7 V nominal voltage/cell) LiFe – Lithium metal battery Li-Mn – Lithium manganese battery (3.6 V nominal voltage/cell) LiFePO4 – Lithium iron phosphate battery (3.2 V nominal voltage/cell) LiTi – Lithium titanate battery RAM – Rechargeable alkaline manganese (1.5 V nominal voltage/cell) PTMA – modified PTMA, more precisely: 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxy-4-ylMethacrylate, an environmentally friendly organic polymer Ni-Fe – Nickel Iron Battery (1.2 V – 1.9 V nominal voltage/cell) Na/NiCl – Sodium Nickel Chloride High Temperature Battery (brand name: Zebra Battery ) (2,58 V nominal voltage/cell) SCiB – Super Charge Ion Battery Silver-zinc battery (1.5 V nominal voltage/cell) Vanadium redox battery Zinc-bromine battery (1.76 V nominal voltage/cell)
The battery The battery is the most expensive component on the bike. Here, development has come a long way in recent years. Only the development of battery technology has made the electric bicycle possible. In the past lead-acid batteries (like today's car batteries) and nickel-cadmium batteries were used. These types of batteries have a significantly higher weight per unit of energy than modern batteries. They are also not environmentally friendly due to their heavy metal content. Nickel-cadmium batteries are largely banned in the EU for most applications in the future due to their cadmium content. A few years ago, nickel-metal hydride batteries were introduced. These batteries contain slightly more energy than NiCd batteries. They are a little more environmentally friendly. However, they are now also being replaced in many applications. The most advanced battery technology is lithium-based batteries. Lithium-ion batteries and lithium-polymer batteries have the highest energy content in relation to weight – at the same capacity, the weight is about one-fifth that of a lead-acid battery and about half that of NiCd or NiMH batteries. In addition, there is no memory effect with these types, which with NiCd and – somewhat reduced with NiMH batteries – leads to a reduction in the capacity of the battery if it is not completely discharged on a regular basis. A lithium-ion battery weighing less than 2.5 kilograms contains about a quarter of a kilowatt hour of energy. It is sufficient for a driving distance of 40 to 80 kilometers. Batteries based on lithium technology must be charged within certain limits. Discharge certain limits. For this purpose these batteries contain appropriate electronics. Protection Lithium batteries must not be deep discharged. In operation, the electronics ensure that this does not happen. If they are stored for a longer period of time, they have to be recharged every 3 to 6 months to avoid a deep discharge. Lithium-ion batteries are divided into lithium-manganese batteries and lithium-cobalt batteries. Unfortunately, lithium cobalt batteries have been found to be not without problems. In case of "mistreatment the lithium-cobalt cell is particularly sensitive, it may well react with explosive flash fire. The lithium-manganese cell does not have this unpleasant characteristic, it does not need a safety circuit either. Lithium batteries can be recycled in an environmentally friendly way.
Master mountains and hills without problems
Families can be on the same level
Trips become a long-distance experience No overexertion and overloads
Did you know that..? …An electric bicycle consumes the same amount of energy over 100 km as a three-minute hot shower! …Switzerland has the highest density of electric bicycles in the world after Japan! …In Japan the share of electric bikes is already over 30%! …The drive of the electric bike is practically silent! …The battery only 1.Weighs 3 kg, which means that you can easily take a second battery with you on a long trip. …That a SCIB battery can be charged in 1 minute!