Types of electric cars and the development of electromobility

Electric cars are the key to reducing carbon emissions in the transport sector. They can also make zero-emission transportation a reality in the future. Electric motors have the highest efficiency. A major obstacle leading to the limited usability of electric cars is currently still the low penetration of charging stations. Hybrid powertrains may prove to be a good "transition"-Prove alternative. What are the other options?

Electric cars differ in the drive solution or in the way energy losses are replenished sposobami uzupełniania ubytków energii. We distinguish BEV (Battery Electric Vehicle), HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle), REEV (Range-Extended Electric Vehicle) and FCEV (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle). A BEV is the" purest" Type of electric car. Because it is powered solely by an electric motor, it has the highest energy efficiency, which is about. 80% is. In comparison, conventional internal combustion engines only use 18% to 25% of the energy produced by burning fuel. It should be emphasized that electric cars do not emit exhaust gases. Moreover, provided they are powered by electricity that does not use fossil fuels, they can be virtually emission-free. However, their main disadvantage is that the batteries need to be recharged regularly and the vehicle's range is limited. So what are the prospects and alternative solutions for environmentally friendly transport?

Bevs – energy efficient but not very practical? The main source of energy. The most expensive component in BEVs is the battery. Currently, lithium-ion batteries are the most widely used batteries in electric vehicles because they have the highest energy density. This parameter refers to the amount of energy that can be stored per unit mass or volume of the battery. It has a decisive influence on the number of kilometers a car can be driven between successive charges. Manufacturers are constantly working to improve this parameter. Nevertheless, it is only 1/10 of the energy density of conventional fuels. In addition, the performance parameters. The battery life of electric cars from different manufacturers vary. Their service life is also highly dependent on the operating conditions, especially a suitable operating temperature. Energy losses in BEVs are reduced to a small extent z. B. Compensated by regenerative braking. However, there is no doubt that the batteries that power an electric motor need to be charged regularly. With the relatively low penetration of charging stations, this can be problematic, not to mention when driving outside of cities. The users of this type of cars also often denounce the long charging times. Hybrid cars, which additionally use other energy sources, can be an alternative.

What are the advantages of HEVs, PHEVs, REEVs and FCEEVs?

Types of electric cars and the development of electromobility

In all hybrid cars, the drive is a "tandem" of a combustion unit and an electric motor of a combustion unit and an electric unit. They are divided into three subgroups. The first of these is soft hybrids, known as mHEVs. In this case, the electric motor does not drive the car itself, but acts as a starter and alternator. It assists the internal combustion engine, resulting in lower consumption of conventional fuel. The second group is full hybrids (HEV). In this solution, the electric motor can power the vehicle alone, but only for a short time and at low speeds. It also assists the combustion unit during acceleration.

In both mHEV and HEV, the batteries are charged only during regenerative braking and idling. This eliminates the problem of the availability of charging stations. For plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), however, there is the option of charging the battery from the electric grid. Thanks to this solution, it is possible to cover even dozens of kilometers purely with an electric motor. Another type of hybrid car is REEV. In this case, the combustion engine is used only to power the electric motor or to charge the battery. Therefore, this unit is smaller, which also reduces the overall weight of the vehicle. The last category is hydrogen fuel cell cars, which drive an electric motor, called FCEVs. They have a longer range than BEVs. Can be recharged faster. Choosing the right hybrid depends on individual vehicle use and personal needs.

Read more: Hydrogen-powered cars – cost, emissions and market information

How to solve the problem of frequent charging of electric cars?

Types of electric cars and the development of electromobility

Hybrid vehicles can be a real alternative to all-electric vehicles because of their greater operational flexibility. However, they are more expensive. Less environmentally friendly. The electric units used in BEVs are more durable, less expensive to maintain and operate, and also quieter. So how can the problem of inconvenient frequent recharging for users be solved? Among the solutions still being worked on is wireless charging, based on the phenomenon of induction. In this case, the car would not need to be connected to the station, which could be much more convenient for users. Another convenient option is to replace a used battery with a charged one. However, this would require standardization of battery types, connections and dimensions, which is not feasible at this stage.

Types of electric cars and the development of electromobility

On the other hand, a practical method is to reduce the dead weight of a car. This translates directly into lower energy consumption for the powertrain and a longer range. Vehicle parts made of expanded polypropylene EPP enable the production of very lightweight seats, bumpers, headrests or trunk parts. They are very durable while being up to 65% lighter than their hard plastic counterparts. Battery packs made from them also have excellent thermal properties, effectively protecting batteries from extreme temperatures. By absorbing shocks and impacts, they extend the life of the battery cells and the electric car.

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